1) C 2) B 3) D
Many companies also offer workers free food all day long and usually have a real kitchen for them to use. Workers can bring their pets to work at some companies too.
People may wonder why companies would have this type of relaxing environment. These companies believe that making workplace fun and interesting leads to more creativity and exchange of ideas.
In what way is the typical workplace changing?
Why are workers careful to work in such a place?
Why do these companies create such an environment?
4) C 5) B
However, this was not the last time the whale returned to a California beach. In the next two weeks, the same dead whale came back to a different beach. Each time boats pulled the whale back into the ocean, it came back due to the ocean tides. Finally, after taking the whale back to the ocean six times, the officials decided they must do something different. They decided they must cut the body of the dead whale and bury the pieces.
Biologists aren’t sure why the whale died, but they believe it was old and died naturally.
What was the incident at a California beach in early July?
Why did the same dead whale come back from the ocean?
6) D 7) D 8) B 9) D
W: Hey Mike! Want to come to a dance party this Saturday?
M: Not again Joyce, I don’t like dancing. You invite me to a different event 3 times a week. The pool party, the bowling trip, golfing, and now dancing!
W: Yes, I know. But you do need to come out eventually. You’ve been here at the University of Washington for two months now! What are you so busy doing all day?
M: I like to come home and play video games. I spend time with my friends online, I don’t need to waste more time meeting new people on campus.
W: I know you have friends from high school, but have you met anyone here on campus?
M: Well, I know two guys from chemistry class, Erick and Jack. Why do you even care?
W: I’m your dormitory assistant and it’s my job to get you out meeting people. More importantly, you need to make new friends here at the university…
M: Look Joyce, maybe if you did things I enjoy…
W: Alright! Deal! I’ll host a video game competition. The winner gets… Ummm—home-baked chocolate-chip cookies!
M: Home-baked chocolate-chip cookies, you say?
W: Plus Mike, you might also like to know that there are already 15 girls signed up for the dance and only five guys. That’s a pretty good ratio, right? Three girls for every guy?
M: Three girls!? Three girls to every one guy at the dance?
W: Yep! Plus your neighbors in the dorm next door, Emily, Miranda, and Carol, will be there.
M: Is Miranda the one with black hair?
W: Hah! I knew you had eyes for her. You have lots in common too. She’s a biology student and she’ll be taking chemistry next semester.
M: Alright! I’ll be there! And I’ll bring Erick and Jack too!
University of Washington 华盛顿大学
dormitory assistant 宿舍助理（负责组织各种活动以鼓励学生更好地融入大学生活）
Why did the woman ask the man out three times a week?
Why was the man unwilling to go to the dancing party?
What made the man change his mind?
How many guys would probably go to the dance party eventually according to the passage?
10) D 11) A 12) C 13) D
M: Hey neighbor! What are you doing this fine Saturday morning?
W: Relaxing on my porch with my dog, Rosco, iced tea in one hand, a good book in the other. What about you? You look a little… um…dirty…
M: I am covered in dirt. I just got back from planting flowers in the community garden.
W: What’s a community garden?
M: Really?! You haven’t seen our garden? It’s a big, beautiful garden, right behind our swimming pool downstairs. It’s shared by everyone in our apartment building.
W: Guess I’ve never noticed it before. To be honest, I’ve never been into gardening. My mom loved it—she’d spend her entire weekend up to her elbows in dirt, weeding and planting all spring. Personally, I can’t stand the insects. They drive me crazy!
M: That’s the best part of our garden! We grow beneficial flowers that get rid of annoying insects. We have special flowers all over the garden and the smell of the flowers drives away the damaging insects. That way, we don’t have to spray poison on the plants.
W: Wow, I like the sound of that. Still, while I think flowers are beautiful, I’d rather plant something I could get something out of, like fruit trees or berry bushes…
M: Haha, I know what you mean. That’s why we have a big area of the garden for growing fruits and vegetables. Imagine fresh, organic carrots, potatoes, tomatoes…
W: Well… hmmm… I do have been able to eat organic, locally grown fruit and vegetables… it’s healthier and way more delicious! Have you planted strawberries yet?
M: Not yet…
W: Well then I know what I’m doing next Saturday morning—joining you in the community garden, and planting some strawberry plants!
strawberry n. 草莓
What was the man doing on this Saturday morning?
How did the man get rid of the insects from the garden?
What do we know about the garden from the conversation?
What will the woman do next Saturday morning?
14) D 15) D 16) B 17) C
Often, many badly injured patients arrive all at the same time when there is a lot of fighting. Sometimes there aren’t enough beds and the patients must be placed on the floor.
In addition, doctors often have to manage with no medicine and very little medical equipment. There are also not enough doctors to help everyone, so sometimes doctors have to make a painful choice and pick which patient they help. For example, they may have to stop trying to save a dying child, so they can save somebody who has a good chance to live.
Whilst the doctors are caring for war victims, they are also taking care of patients with regular problems. But these clinics are only at night because it’s too dangerous for patients to walk there in the day.
Doctors are having trouble handling such terrible conditions. They have fears that they may be killed or injured, and they are very tired. There aren’t very many doctors, so most of them must work 20 hours in one day. They also suffer emotionally. They cannot forget seeing the terrible conditions of children in the hospital.
Why do these amazing doctors continue to help these patients? They believe that the world has forgotten these people, and they feel a responsibility to help them. They are heroes for their passion for helping people in a very dangerous place.
Why do the doctors have to pick which patient they help?
Why do regular patients go to clinics only at night?
Why do the doctors continue to help these patients?
What’s the main idea of this passage?
Ludwig van Beethoven
A) Ludwig van Beethoven was a German composer of classical music, who lived predominantly in Vienna, Austria. Beethoven is widely regarded as one of history’s supreme composers who produced notable works even after he completely lost his hearing. He was one of the greatest figures in the transitional period between the Classical and Romantic eras in music. His reputation has inspired and in many cases intimidated (吓倒) composers, musicians, and audiences coming after him.
B) Beethoven’s first music teacher was his father, a musician at Bonn and an alcoholic who beat him and unsuccessfully attempted to exploit him as a child prodigy (天才) like Mozart. His mother died when he was 17, and for several years he was responsible for raising his two younger brothers. Beethoven moved to Vienna in 1792, where he intended to study with Joseph Haydn. He quickly established a reputation as an excellent pianist, and more slowly, as a composer. He settled into the career pattern he would follow for the remainder of his life.
C) Beethoven’s career as a composer is usually divided into early, middle, and late periods. In the early period, he is seen as emulating (模仿) his great predecessors Haydn and Mozart, at the same time exploring new directions and gradually expanding the scope and ambition of his work. The middle period began shortly after Beethoven’s personal crisis centering around deafness. The period is noted for large-scale works expressing heroism and struggle; these include many of the most famous works of classical music. Beethoven’s late period began around 1816 and lasted until he died in 1827. His works in the late period are greatly admired for and characterized by their intellectual depth, intense and highly personal expression, and his experimentation with different forms.
D) Beethoven’s personal life was troubled. Around age 26, he started to lose his hearing, which led him to contemplate suicide. He was attracted to unattainable women, whom he idealized. Some scholars believe his period of low productivity was caused by the depression resulting from Beethoven’s realization that he would never marry.
E) Beethoven quarreled often bitterly with his relatives and others; he frequently treated other people badly. He moved often and had strange personal habits, such as wearing filthy (肮脏的) clothing even as he washed compulsively (强迫地). He often had financial troubles. Many listeners perceive an echo of Beethoven’s life in his music, which often depicts struggle followed by triumph. This description is often applied to Beethoven’s creation of masterpieces in the face of his severe personal difficulties.
F) Beethoven was often in poor health, especially after his mid-20s, when he began to suffer from serious stomach pains. In 1826 his health took a drastic turn for the worse. His death the following year was attributed to a liver disease, but modern research on a lock of Beethoven’s hair taken at the time of his death, and a few pieces of his skull show that lead poisoning could well have contributed to his ill-health and ultimately to his death. The source of the lead poisoning may have been fish from the heavily polluted Danube River and lead compounds used to sweeten wines. It is unlikely that lead poisoning is the cause of his deafness, which several researchers think is caused by an autoimmune disorder. The hair analysis did not detect mercury (水银), which was consistent with the view that Beethoven did not have syphilis (梅毒), the disease that was commonly treated with mercury compounds at the time.
G) Beethoven is viewed as one of the most important transitional figures between the Classical and Romantic eras of musical history. As far as musical form is concerned, he built on the principles of sonata form and development that he had inherited from Haydn and Mozart, but greatly extended them, writing longer and more ambitious movements.
H) But Beethoven also radically redefined the symphony, transforming it from the rigidly structured four-ordered-movements form of Haydn’s era to a fairly open-ended form that could sustain as many movements as necessary, and of whatever form as necessary to give the work cohesion.
I) Beethoven was much taken by the ideals of the Enlightenment and by the growing Romanticism in Europe. He initially dedicated his Third Symphony to Napoleon in the belief that the general would sustain the democratic and republican ideals of the French Revolution, but in 1804 he tore out the title page upon which he had written a dedication and renamed the symphony, as Napoleon’s imperial ambitions became clear.
J) Continuing controversy surrounding Beethoven is whether he was a Romantic or a Classical composer. As documented elsewhere, since the meanings of the word “Romantic” and the definition of the period “Romanticism” both vary by discipline, Beethoven’s inclusion as a member of that movement or period must be looked at in context. If we consider the Romantic Movement as an aesthetic epoch in literature and the arts generally, Beethoven sits squarely in the first half along with literary Romantics such as the German poet Goethe and the English poet Percy Shelley. He was also called a Romantic by contemporaries such as E.T.A. Hoffmann. He is often considered the composer of the first song cycle and was influenced by Romantic folk idioms. He set dozens of such poems for voice, piano, and violin. If on the other hand we consider the context of musicology, where Romantic music is dated later, the matter is one of considerably greater debate. For some experts, Beethoven is not a Romantic, and his being one is a myth; for others he stands as a transitional figure, or an immediate precursor (先驱) to Romanticism, the inventor of the Romantic period; for others he is the prototypical Romantic composer, complete with myth of heroic genius and individuality.
K) The marker buoy(浮标) of Romanticism has been pushed back and forth several times by scholars, and it remains a subject of intense debate, in no small part because Beethoven is seen as a pioneering figure. To those for whom the Enlightenment represents the basis of Modernity, he must therefore be a Classicist, while for those who see the romantic sensibility as a key to later aesthetics, he must be a Romantic.
L) Listening to Beethoven’s music yields another possible scholarly analysis: There is definitely an evolution in style from Beethoven’s earliest compositions to his later works. The young Beethoven can be seen toiling to conform to the aesthetic models of his contemporaries: He wants to write music that is acceptable in the society of his days. Later, there is much more iconoclasm (打破旧习) in his approach where a symphony had until then only been a purely instrumental genre (类型). This means the question changes from “Whether Beethoven was a Classicist or a Romantic?” to “When was the pivotal moment that Beethoven tilted from dominant Classicism to dominant Romanticism?” Most scholars seem to concur: The presentation of the Fifth and Sixth Symphonies in a single concert in 1808 is probably closest to that pivotal point.
Beethoven’s career falls into three periods, in the first of which he imitated the famous composers before him. C
Another aspect of Beethoven’s works for scholars to analyze is the evolution in his musical style in different periods. L
Some experts view Beethoven as a Classical or a Romantic composer, while others see him as a transitional figure between the two important eras of musical history. J
Beethoven’s music productivity was once comparatively low as a result of depression caused by his emotional problem. D
Beethoven brought about a significant change on the structure of symphony, especially on the number of its movements. H
Some researchers think Beethoven’s deafness resulted from a disease rather than lead poisoning. F
Beethoven, with odd behavior, couldn’t get along well with other people. E
Discouraged by Napoleon’s ambitions, Beethoven scratched the title of his Third Symphony out for a new name. I
After moving to Vienna, Beethoven was known quickly as an excellent pianist and slowly as a composer. B
In spite of the hearing loss, Beethoven produced many classical music masterpieces in the middle period of his career. C
18) C 19) L 20) J 21) D 22) H 23) F 24) E 25) I 26) B 27) C
You’re making a PowerPoint presentation to a group of professors, for which you have stayed overnight. Even though you are
, you try really hard to pretend to be confident on the site. All of a sudden, however, your mind goes
, for one of the professors shoots a glance at you, and he whispers something to another professor beside him. All kinds of questions
your mind at the same time. Did I say something wrong? Am I making a bad impression? Such uncomfortable feelings start to
If you once found yourself trapped in this nightmare situation, you fit the
model of a shy person. Shy people, as many experts define in their studies, usually fall
to what is simply a careless glance or a meaningless gesture. What’s more, because of their low self judgment rooted deeply in their mind, they often cannot take friendly comments like “If you are not so
, you’ll make a better performance.” But being shy doesn’t necessarily mean being lacking in ability or competence. Rather, many shy people are capable professionals. And what
between a successful communicator and a shy sharer is just that the latter needs to build up his self-confidence.
Despite their 36) fragility and the terrible situations shy people are usually involved in, there’s definitely hope for them. According to experts, 40 percent of the shy population can finally 37) overcome shyness if given enough encouragement and support.
- A. vacant
- B. afflict
- C. occupy
- D. deprive
- E. gracious
- F. distinguishes
- G. conscientious
- H. manifest
- I. fragility
- J. overcome
- K. typical
- L. rigorous
- M. uneasy
- N. intuition
- O. victim
28) conscientious 29) vacant 30) occupy 31) afflict 32) typical 33) victim 34) uneasy 35) distinguishes 36) fragility 37) overcome
When DR. THOMAS E. DEIKER, 59, remembers his life almost 30 years ago in Pineville, La., he thinks about guns. Worried that more of his neighbors appeared to be buying firearms, Deiker, a research psychologist at Central Louisiana State Hospital at the time, wrote a My Turn in 1974 advocating stricter gun-control laws at a time when any legislation that existed was loosely enforced.
Little progress on the issue of gun control has been made since his My Turn, Deiker says. “My judgment would be that from 1974 to now, there has been no change in gun-control laws at a national level”. What makes him angry is that even after the “long series of copycat (模仿犯罪的) high-school shootings” and “a long series of dissatisfied employees walking into their places of business and killing large numbers of people”, there has still been little action taken. “There was some debate and discussion, but nothing ultimately happened to improve the gun-control laws.”
In fact, weapons today are more deadly. “We have shifted clearly to a far more dangerous and lethal form of firearms in the United States,” he says, “with the widespread use of automatic and semiautomatic weapons, the Internet has proven a perfect provider, offering information on how to build these weapons and where to purchase them.
Many of those buyers, Deiker worries, are hardly older than children. The amount of graphic (图像的) violence youth are exposed to today desensitizes (使麻木) them to violence, he says. “How many thousands of killings will the average child view, either in cartoon form or in actual graphic form, on TV and in videogames?” he asks. “Children grow up practicing. They’re desensitized to the experience of violence in graphic detail. And they have skills in weaponry use from practicing videogames, in which you actually have something you hold in your hand that you can point and shoot.”
In 1974, Deiker wrote that the vast majority of killings are committed by people known intimately to each other. In 2002, “That is still the case,” he says. And Deiker is not optimistic about change: “If we impose total gun control from this day forward, social scientists predict we would be years away from seeing any effect.”
Why did Deiker feel angry?
Which of the following is NOT mentioned according to the passage?
What is the meaning of “lethal” in Paragraph 3?
What do we know from the passage?
What is the author’s attitude toward gun control?
38) D 39) C 40) B 41) A 42) B
A generation after Americans lost the habit of knowing who their space heroes really are, the Columbia astronauts were remembered Tuesday as awe-struck (肃然起敬的) youngsters who longed to “reach the stars”, and as fun-loving but dedicated adults who never lost their sense of adventure. President Bush and first lady Laura Bush attended a 45-minute memorial ceremony at the Johnson Space Center.
The president and the chief of the astronaut corps helped bring the adventurous lives of the seven Columbia astronauts who died Saturday into focus for NASA employees and the nation. Navy Capt. Kent Rominger, the astronaut corps chief, remembered the crew as a ''generous and caring bunch with a great sense of humor''.
Bush also eulogized each astronaut. He spoke on a breezy, clear day as thousands of space program workers stood around a tree-lined pond. The televised ceremony was also broadcast for workers at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. ''Their mission was almost complete, and we lost them so close to home,'' Bush said. ''Their loss was sudden and terrible. And for their families, the grief is heavy. Our nation shares in your sorrow and your pride. And today we remember not only one moment of tragedy but seven lives of great purpose and achievement.'' Bush declared that the United States would continue its manned space program: ''This cause of exploration and discovery is not an option we choose. It is a desire written in the human heart.''
Bush was accompanied to Houston on Air Force One with former senator John Glenn, the first American to orbit the Earth, and Neil Armstrong, the first man to set foot on the moon. The president arrived at the ceremony walking hand-in-hand with the first lady. Afterward, they met privately with about 40 family members. A White House assistant said Bush spoke to each person. He made small talk with the children about school and offered his regrets for meeting at such a tragic time. He told one widow, ‘‘you're a strong soul.'' He said to one father who lost a child, ‘‘we're so proud of you as a father. ''
The roar of NASA T-38 training jets that flew a ''missing man'' formation still echoed in the distance, as space agency workers leaving the ceremony said they had found comfort in the service.
What is the main topic of the passage?
Where was the ceremony in memory of the seven Columbia astronauts held?
Which of the following is NOT true according to the passage?
What does the word “eulogized” in Paragraph three most probably mean?
Which of the following can be concluded from the passage?
43) C 44) B 45) D 46) A 47) C
My Neighbor has a gun. In fact, not having the good fortune to live in the last house on a dead-end street, I am surrounded by neighbors with guns. My situation is hardly novel, since most American households own at least one weapon. We now have enough privately owned guns to arm nearly every man, woman and child in the country. And some of those children are not just imaginary gun users, as recent statistics indicate.
My neighbors’ guns make me nervous; I’m afraid that they might go off at the wrong time, pointed in the wrong direction. I’ve asked why such dangerous items are allowed to clutter up the house. I’ve gotten several answers, from constitutional rights to the innocent sport of blasting birds out of the skies. I’d like to focus on just one of these reasons.
My neighbor tells me that curling up at night with his gun nearby makes him feel safer. Safer from what? A madman out to better the going entry in the “Guinness Book of World Records” for bloody brutality? My neighbor faces far less danger from the mentally ill killer, who fortunately is extremely rare, than he does from my other neighbor who also has a gun. Contrary to the public myth, mental patients have crime rates far below those of my neighbor or me; for all categories of crime and for homicide in particular. One of the few safe places left to live in this gun-packing country is on the grounds of your local mental hospital, where the residents are far less aggressive than my neighbor and guns are checked in at the gate.
Safer from some intruder (侵入者) in the night seeking to deprive his wife of her virtue or him of his new color television? According to best available estimates, my neighbor’s odds of doing himself in accidentally with his own gun are about five times higher than his odds of being done in by some intruder. As a gun owner, my neighbor would be better advised to invest his money in locks and a loud dog. Actually, the intruder in the night accounts for fewer than three percent of our gun deaths. The bulk comes from perfectly law-abiding (守法的) but gun-toting (持枪的) people like my neighbors, who kill each other, themselves, or me.
Which of the following can be inferred from the first paragraph?
Which of the following may be NOT the reason why neighbors’ guns make the author nervous?
What does the author imply in the passage?
What can we conclude from the fourth paragraph?
What is the author primarily concerned with In this passage?
48) C 49) D 50) B 51) A 52) C
A woman teacher can know you from the inside; you cannot hide from her so easily, or ________ her attention.
I went to a school where we had to speak French all the time, but outside school hours I ________ to English.
________ the pretext of showing Paul how to do it, Alan flew the kite himself.
Rinny had ________ himself as a skilled craftsman at his father’s gunmaking shop.
Her ________ was rarely wrong where such things were concerned, but there was always the off chance.
I don’t know if many people could pull that dress off, but she looked ________ in it.
This allows the engineers to ________ every possible situation in order to test the system.
When you get the right role, you want to stay focused; you want to ________ yourself as much as you can.
How many times have you been
by rejections and obstacles? Most of the time, we think that there is some sort of external force that
prevents us from being happy. Well, the truth is—that “negative force” you are
of is actually your mind.
Yes, your own attitude is that which may prevent you from achieving fulfillment. Although the heart is the lifeline of the body,
on the other hand
, the brain affects your entire being. If you
tell yourself that you are not good enough, then eventually, the body follows suit. Knowing this, you must
condition your consciousness into thinking that you can have a
life and you can
The people around you sometimes criticize you to
your hope for a bright future, but who are they to
your life journey? If you tell yourself that people often pull you down in an effort to bring you to their (low) level, then you
a small victory. Take note that the ones who say that you can never be successful are the ones who are
in their own lives. You should refuse to allow your spirit to be
by their words.
Learning to believe in yourself is overcoming 74) fear . Many people are afraid of trying because they are afraid of failing. Remember the failure, and then being able to overcome it is a 75) victory in itself. So you create a strong belief in yourself. 76) Challenge your limits, even if that means more defeats, and condition your spirit into realizing that all these 77) setbacks helped you achieve your true strength as a person. Once you learn this, you will quickly find that you are able to 78) transform the obstacles into an alternative route to success. The single most important key to becoming successful in any area of your life comes down to the way you think. Spend time every day feeding your mind 79) with powerful education, mindset (观念) and knowledge and find other 80) successful people to see what they did that you could start to model.
61) D 62) A 63) C 64) D 65) B 66) B 67) A 68) A 69) B 70) C 71) C 72) D 73) C 74) A 75) D 76) B 77) A 78) B 79) B 80) A