读写4-韦炜-B4U1
长对话4题,总分值:8分
Directions: In this section, you'll hear some long conversations. At the end of each conversation, some questions will be asked. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question, choose the best answer from the four choices marked A, B, C, and D.
1)

2)

3)

4)

参考答案:

1) A      2) B      3) C      4) D

解析:

(无)

听力文本:

M: Jenny, are you crying? What’s wrong?

W: Oh Dad, I’m so worried about my first big project in freshman art class this semester. The project is due in two weeks, and it’s worth 25 percent of my final grade!

M: Jenny, you’re having trouble in art class? … But you’re wonderful at art. You love art! Everyone loves that series of pictures you painted of our cat, Giant!

W: Who wouldn’t love paintings of a small white cat named “Giant”? But that was in High School!  This is the university where everyone is mature and behaves like an adult! I need excellent ideas! I need to be truly creative! University students must behave like real artists.

M: Oh honey, maybe that’s the problem here. First of all, life is a journey, not a destination. Adult behaviors emerge over time and you’re doing just fine! Your behaviors show us that you’re already traveling on the road to being a mature adult AND a mature artist.

W: Thanks Dad. It means a lot to hear that you and mom are proud of my adult behaviors. But I am really worried about my creativity for my art project. What if I create something wrong and everyone laughs at me?

M: Jenny, you can’t force creativity by worrying! The best behaviors for creativity are trial and error and some risk! You have to be able to take ideas and keep working with them for good art to grow. Be bold, Jenny!

W: Even if someone laughs or the art work is a failure?

M: Well, those are basic risks of art, and life. Right? Adults succeed in life because they are willing to risk, because they accept new challenges to be creative without being too afraid of the outcome. I believe in you, Jenny!


What causes the woman to be upset?

Why does the man feel confident about the woman?

What advice does the man give to the woman?

What is the man’s tone in speaking to the woman?

∨ 展开解析
长文章8题,总分值:16分
Directions: In this section, you’ll hear some passages. At the end of each passage, you'll hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question, choose the best answer from the four choices marked A, B, C, and D.
5)

6)

7)

8)

参考答案:

5) B      6) C      7) D      8) C

解析:

(无)

听力文本:

The characteristics of student-teacher relationships on American campuses vary somewhat, depending on whether the students involved are undergraduate or graduate students, and on the size and nature of the school. Graduate students typically have more intense relationships with their professors than undergraduates do; at smaller schools, student-teacher relationships are typically even less formal than they are at larger schools.

To say that student-teacher relationships are informal is not to say that there are no recognized status differences between the two groups. There are. But students may show their respect only in subtle ways, mainly in the vocabulary and tone of voice they use when speaking to teachers. Much of their behavior around teachers may seem disrespectful. American students will eat in class, read newspapers, and assume informal postures. Teachers might not enjoy such behavior, but they tolerate it.

Students, after all, are individuals who are entitled to decide for themselves how they are to act. American teachers generally expect students to ask them some questions or even challenge what they say. Teachers do not assume they know all there is to know about a subject. Nor do they assume that they invariably explain things clearly. Students who want additional explanation or information are expected to ask for it during the class, just after class ends, or in the teacher's office hours. Students who do not ask questions may be considered uninterested.

While most teachers welcome students’ questions and comments about the material being covered in the course, they do not welcome student efforts to negotiate for high grades. Teachers normally believe they have an acceptable system for determining grades, and, unless it seems possible that a mistake has been made, teachers respond very negatively to students who try to talk them into raising a grade.


What are student-teacher relationships like at smaller schools in America?

How do American students show their respect for teachers?

Why do American teachers expect students to ask them questions?

What do American teachers dislike according to the recording?

∨ 展开解析
9)

10)

11)

12)

参考答案:

9) B      10) D      11) A      12) C

解析:

(无)

听力文本:

Honesty is considered a virtue, but very few people tell the complete truth all the time. One does not necessarily have to be a bad person in order to tell an occasional lie. In some cases, there may even be a good reason.

People lie out of kindness. These kinds of untruths are known as “little white lies”. They are generally told to prevent a person from feeling bad about themselves or a situation. A husband may tell his wife that he really loves her hairstyle, when actually he doesn’t.

People lie to avoid conflict. If a wife goes a few dollars over budget on her new dress, she may lie about the true cost to her husband, because she knows that telling the truth may result in an argument and she knows she can easily replace the amount out of her household budget.

People lie for personal gain. Job applicants may lie about their job experience or education on their resumes in order to be picked for a job they are not really qualified for. Another example is a person claiming money or an item somebody else lost.

People lie out of their evilness. Some people will lie just to get other people into trouble. A wife may be told that her husband is having an affair, when really he was working overtime. An employee may wrongly accuse a colleague of having said or done something inappropriate. Sometimes people will start a vicious rumor, just to see how far it will go.

One thing people usually don’t think about when they are lying is that most of them will get caught, which will put them in a worse situation than they would have been in if they had told the truth in the first place.


Why do people tell “little white lies” sometimes?

What is the purpose for some people to tell evil lies according to the speaker?

What is implied by the speaker at the end of the talk?

What is the main purpose of the talk?

∨ 展开解析
词汇与结构16题,总分值:16分
Directions: For each of the following sentences there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the best one to complete each sentence.

With the collapse of the stock market, many ________ professionals and executives have been stripped of their huge gains on stock option packages and investments.

参考答案:

13) B

解析:

(无)

∨ 展开解析

Unlike some kids who graduate high school eager to start a life away from home, Matt ________ a college about 30 miles from his home so that he could remain devoted to family, and especially his mother.

参考答案:

14) A

解析:

(无)

∨ 展开解析

I wouldn’t want to go into ________ on those particular issues right now, but I want to emphasize that drastic measures must be taken to effectively address them.

参考答案:

15) C

解析:

(无)

∨ 展开解析

In 1980, the average textile (纺织业的) worker in the United States was earning $6.32 an hour, while his ________ in some developing countries was making only 80 cents an hour.

参考答案:

16) A

解析:

(无)

∨ 展开解析

When Jim purchased the land five years ago, he had a scenario that included potential ________ of it to a holiday resort.

参考答案:

17) B

解析:

(无)

∨ 展开解析

There seems to be no debate about the ________ that the world will be warmer and warmer if we keep pumping large amounts of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere.

参考答案:

18) B

解析:

(无)

∨ 展开解析

Corey said his time working with the professor was the most rewarding experience he had ever had in his life, far ________ anything that he might have dreamed of or imagined.

参考答案:

19) A

解析:

(无)

∨ 展开解析

According to a recent study, if somebody gets into a car and tries to pull out, they often take longer to do so if there’s somebody waiting to get into that parking ________.

参考答案:

20) C

解析:

(无)

∨ 展开解析

After the layoffs were announced, Mr. Hollande ________ that the plan “is not acceptable, and therefore it will not be accepted”.

参考答案:

21) D

解析:

(无)

∨ 展开解析

Denise has a worsening eye problem that leaves her unable to drive. ________, she recently fell and broke her ankle and has to use a wheelchair now to get around her house.

参考答案:

22) D

解析:

(无)

∨ 展开解析

________ that his eldest son had a drug addiction and liked to use painkillers and different medications.

参考答案:

23) C

解析:

(无)

∨ 展开解析

The smiling champion said she was lucky ________ she came along at a time when there were places where she could learn and people who would give her the opportunity to learn.

参考答案:

24) A

解析:

(无)

∨ 展开解析

Experts carry heavy responsibilities when assessing the risk of the epidemic for the health of the population and ________ enormous pressure to be both efficient and accurate.

参考答案:

25) B

解析:

(无)

∨ 展开解析
26)

Some people dread the idea of eating the same thing for dinner two nights ________. They prefer to cook fresh food for themselves every day.

参考答案:

26) D

解析:

(无)

∨ 展开解析

Environmental issues such as global warming and acid rain have captured public attention recently. Concern about such issues has led many to ________ far-reaching solutions.

参考答案:

27) A

解析:

(无)

∨ 展开解析

Last year’s rate increases ________ the worst bear market in bonds since records were started in the early 1920s.

参考答案:

28) C

解析:

(无)

∨ 展开解析
选词填空(15选10)10题,总分值:20分
Directions: Fill in the blanks in the following passage by selecting suitable words from the word bank. Each word can be used only once.

Does smoking, as many smokers say, help them to “think and concentrate”? In order to 29) testify the truth of the proposition, psychologists put non-smokers, active smokers and smokers deprived of cigarettes through a series of tests.

In the first test, each 30) subject sat before a computer screen and pressed a key as soon as he or she recognized a 31) target letter among a grouping of 96. In this simple test, smokers, deprived smokers and nonsmokers performed equally well.

The next test was more complex, requiring all to scan 32) sequences of 20 identical letters and respond the instant one of the letters transformed into a different one. Non-smokers were faster, but under the 33) stimulation of nicotine (尼古丁), active smokers were faster than deprived smokers.

In the third test of short-term memory, non-smokers made the fewest errors, but deprived smokers 34) committed fewer errors than active smokers.

The fourth test required people to read a passage, then answer questions about it. Non-smokers remembered 19 percent more of the most important information than active smokers, and deprived smokers performed better than those who had smoked a cigarette just before testing. Active smokers tended not only to have 35) obscured memories but also had trouble separating important information from 36) insignificant details.

Through the tests, psychologists conclude that as the tests became more complex, non-smokers performed better than smokers by wider and wider 37) margins . They then predict that smokers might perform adequately at many jobs – until they got complicated. A smoking airline pilot could fly adequately if no problems arose, but if something went wrong, smoking might cause his mental function to 38) stall shortly.

  • A.  committed
  • B.  stall
  • C.  insignificant
  • D.  target
  • E.  rectify
  • F.  perceived
  • G.  margins
  • H.  testify
  • I.  veto
  • J.  sequences
  • K.  subject
  • L.  obscured
  • M.  spectrum
  • N.  dubious
  • O.  stimulation

参考答案:

29) testify      30) subject      31) target      32) sequences      33) stimulation      34) committed      35) obscured      36) insignificant      37) margins      38) stall

∨ 展开解析
阅读理解10题,总分值:20分
Directions: Read the following passages carefully. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished sentences. For each of them there are four choices marked A, B, C, and D. Choose the best answer to each question.

One of the key ways to improve the management function in an organization is to improve the decision-making process. IT is commonly used to support and streamline (提高……的效率) decision making in an organization. It can be used to address decisions about how to structure job tasks, organize production operations, manage inventory flow, and so on.

Decisions that are simple and / or highly structured are good candidates for automation. A structured decision is one in which the inputs, decision criteria, method to process those inputs, and specific outputs are well-defined. For example, it is a relatively straightforward task to develop a computer program that will generate late payment notices for those customers who have not paid their monthly telephone bill on time. The program requires certain input data about billing information, decision rules about what constitutes a missed payment, and output instructions to generate a form letter or billing notice to be sent to the customer.

The automation of structured decisions is also used to improve communication and decision making between organizations. Not long ago, it was necessary for retailers to call credit card companies every time a customer wished to charge a purchase using a credit card. A representative working for the credit card company would examine the customer’s record to determine whether or not to approve each purchase. Today, this process has been automated so that information and decisions related to purchases using a credit card are transmitted electronically.

Now consider the many benefits of automating this simple process. First, automating this process has reduced the cost of operations for credit card companies. Card issuers have streamlined and downsized (缩小规模;减员) their staff since fewer customer representatives are needed to handle purchase approvals / disapprovals. Second, the automated process has sped up the approval process so that retailers can deliver prompt and reliable service to their customers (improving customer satisfaction) and process more financial transactions within a given time period. Thirdly, the communication between retailers and card issuers has been improved. More purchases can be approved with greater accuracy using the IT-enabled system.

39)

What is the passage mainly about?

40)

Why is it easier to develop a program for generating late payment notices for customers who failed to pay their bills on time?

41)

What did retailers have to do in the past to charge a purchase with a credit card?

42)

What can we learn about today’s credit card companies?

43)

From the passage, we can conclude that automation can most greatly change _______.

参考答案:

39) C      40) A      41) C      42) B      43) A

解析:

(无)
∨ 展开解析

Popular stereotype would have us believe that young women are often concerned about every up and down in their relationships – but one study says “romance drama” actually has a bigger effect on men.

Any reader of Cosmo could be forgiven for thinking that women spend all their time analyzing their boyfriends’ body language, text messages, and even sleep style for evidence of a likely breakup or marriage proposal. But according to Science Daily , researchers from Wake Forest University and Florida State University surveyed a thousand men and women between the ages of 18 and 23, and found that men were actually more likely to suffer emotionally from relationship difficulties. Study co-author Robin Simon explains that “for young men, their romantic partners are often their primary source of intimacy – in contrast to young women who are more likely to have close relationships with family and friends.”

Young men themselves – as well as pop culture in general – often proclaim the idea that women spend all their time talking about their boyfriends, while men never mention their girlfriends to their fellow beings. This may be partially true – but it’s not because men don’t care about their girlfriends or because other topics are simply more important to men than relationships. In fact, it might be better for men to discuss their relationships more openly, getting reassurance about small problems and advice for solving larger ones.

But young men shouldn’t necessarily act like young women in every way. Simon also says that “while young men are more affected emotionally by the quality of their current relationships, young women are more emotionally affected by whether they are in a relationship or not. So, young women are more likely to experience depression when the relationship ends, or benefit more by simply being in a relationship.” Being single is still a greater stigma (耻辱) for women than for men, but bad relationships aren’t good for either gender. And, as has been learned by many, sometimes you’re better off alone.

44)

What is the finding of the study done by researchers in the US universities?

45)

Why don’t men talk about their girlfriends?

46)

In Simon’s opinion, _____________.

47)

What is the advice given by the writer?

48)

What tends to be the writer’s attitude toward the finding?

参考答案:

44) D      45) C      46) B      47) C      48) B

解析:

(无)
∨ 展开解析
长篇阅读10题,总分值:20分
Directions: You are going to read a passage with 10 statements attached to it. Each statement contains information given in one of the paragraphs. Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived. You may choose a paragraph more than once. Each paragraph is marked with a letter.

There’s a Different Way to Innovate

A) Once, it was called “Yankee ingenuity”. Now the phrase that best captures the quick-witted, on-the-fly ability to solve problems with minimal (极小的) resources comes from the Hindi word for a clever, improvised (即兴的) solution, says Jaideep Prabhu, professor at the University of Cambridge’s Judge Business School. Jugaad Innovation is the name of the new book Dr. Prabhu co-authored with Navi Radjou, a California-based consultant and Judge school fellow, and Simone Ahuja, whose Minneapolis-based company Blood Orange produced a television series on social change in India. Businesses in the rich Western world, they argue, have lost their innovative edge, while entrepreneurs in India and other developing countries are finding opportunities in scarcity and coming up with smart ways to make more from less.

B) The three say the West, once the unchallenged leader in business innovation, can learn a lot from emerging economies. Indeed, as tough times and unpredictable conditions roil the once-stable developed world, they will have little choice but to do so, Dr. Prabhu and his colleagues argue. The three began studying entrepreneurs in India and other developing-world nations together several years ago. Quickly, “it became very clear to us that there was something very interesting happening from the perspective of innovation,” says Dr. Prabhu, who was born in India, earned a business doctorate at the University of Southern California and runs the Judge School’s Center for India and Global Business. He says it's a form of the old frontier mentality: “You live by your wits and what you have around you, and then you figure something out.”

C) Innovation in the developing world happens differently than in the old research and development labs of wealthy countries, Dr. Prabhu said in an interview. Scarcity forces people to be resourceful; chaotic, unpredictable conditions demand flexibility; and modern interconnectivity allows ideas to spread from the bottom up. The other principles of jugaad innovation include seeing opportunity in adversity, keeping solutions simple and focusing on the needs of marginal, underserved customers, not as objects of charity but as a market with big potential for growth. Jugaad innovators grab at frugal, off-the-shelf solutions, figuring out how to use existing technologies to fill unmet demands, rather than coming up with expensive new ideas and then searching for a way to use them.

D) The book, published in early spring in Britain and America and this month in India, is full of examples of grass-roots entrepreneurs building successful, socially useful businesses with little more than their wits. Kanak Das, a villager in northeast India, designed a bicycle that converts the shocks of bouncing through potholes (路面坑洞) into acceleration energy that propels it forward more quickly. Rural potter Mansukh Prajapati built the Mitticool, a clay refrigerator that keeps food cool for three to five days through evaporation (蒸发), using no electricity and biodegrading at the end of its useful life.

E) Jugaad innovation doesn’t happen only in remote villages, Dr. Prabhu says. Developing-world corporations like India’s Tata Motors Ltd., whose Nano car sells for less than $3,000, have also found ways to cut costs dramatically.

F) Western corporations, particularly those that operate in emerging markets, are beginning to catch on too, and embracing the idea of “radical affordability”, Dr. Prabhu says. He cites GE Healthcare’s MAC 400 portable electrocardiogram machine, designed for the Indian market and sold for a fraction of the price of its more traditional equivalent. Stripped of all but the essentials, it runs on batteries and borrows technology from existing sources, like a printer similar to one used for bus tickets. “It was cutting and pasting, just like what Indian and Chinese companies were doing,” Dr. Prabhu says.

G) Traditionally, most Western companies kept R&D labs at home even as they moved back-office and manufacturing functions overseas. In the middle of the last decade, though, that changed as big multinationals began opening R&D offices in developing nations, Dr. Prabhu says. That has helped many to pick up on the jugaad approach. Dr. Prabhu and his colleagues list 3M Co. and Pepsi Co. Inc. among the big Western corporations that have embraced improvised, frugal thinking.

H) Once, America was the foremost practitioner of the approach. Benjamin Franklin, the authors say, was a classic jugaad innovator, coming up with simple but revolutionary ideas like the lightning rod, bifocal glasses and the Franklin stove, which used simple principles to produce more heat and less smoke than an open fireplace. With increasing prosperity, though, Americans lost their groove (最佳状态). As in other Western nations, the US approach to innovation became highly structured and confined to elite teams of engineers who sometimes lost touch with what people really needed, Dr. Prabhu says.

I) Western companies’ innovative edge, Dr. Prabhu and his co-authors argue, has been a victim of abundance. Engineers add a never-ending stream of new features to products rather than focusing on simplicity and affordability, attributes that are increasingly attractive to consumers. Even sales structures serve as a prod (提醒,鼓励) toward flashier, more expensive products, since salespeople earning commissions or working toward performance targets are often reluctant to talk up cheaper alternatives, the authors say.

J) They also believe that the popular, data-driven Six Sigma management philosophy, which focuses on perfecting manufacturing processes and removing variability, has been too widely applied to research and development, creating an inflexible, overly homogenizing approach that stifles new ideas. “If this condition of malfunction continues much longer,” the authors say, “there is a risk that it will cripple the West even as it emerges from tough economic times and seeks to grow.”

K) Companies must retool (改组,革新) quickly if they are to survive what the authors see as a coming age of scarcity, brought on by declines in middle-class spending power in the US and other rich nations, plus competition from developing-world companies and growing world demand for natural resources. The jugaad idea, Dr. Prabhu believes, can help re-energize individual firms and even entire economic sectors, including health care, energy, manufacturing and financial services. He and his colleagues say jugaad innovators are already springing up in wealthy countries, including the US.

L) “Young people are doing this, with social media and 3D printing, it’s a DIY movement,” he says. “I also think it's a shift in values” as more would-be businesspeople focus on running their own businesses and reaching out to those on society’s margins.

M) Smart companies are getting ahead of the curve, too, and Dr. Prabhu says there are many examples of jugaad thinking in corporate America. He cites Procter & Gamble Co.’s extensive use of social media for market research, which allows it to weed out unprofitable ideas quickly and focus resources on the most popular ones. P&G has also increased its focus on low-income customers, embracing the jugaad idea of looking to the margins. The authors say Apple Inc.’s Steve Jobs, with his famed ability to give consumers what they didn’t realize they needed, embodied another jugaad principle: Following your intuition. The tech giant's designs also demonstrate the appeal of the jugaad virtue of simplicity.

N) Business schools can help spread the idea of frugal, flexible thinking, Dr. Prabhu believes. He and his co-authors blog on the Harvard Business Review website, and he points to a course at Stanford University’s business and design schools on creating extremely affordable products.

O) Dr. Prabhu emphasizes that jugaad thinking should be a complement to, not a substitute for, the West’s existing approach to innovation. With advantages like developed infrastructure, educated workers and the ability to manufacture and distribute at scale, taking innovative inspiration from poorer countries could give rich-world economies a big boost, he believes. “We have to bring (jugaad thinking) back to the West,” Dr. Prabhu says. “Or else those emerging Indian and Chinese companies will start eating our lunch in the West with good enough, frugal solutions.”

49)

Kanak Das, who designed a bicycle, was cited as a good example of jugaad innovation. D

50)

The wide use of social media enables P&G to center on more profitable ideas. M

51)

For a time the US was the pioneer in the practice of the jugaad approach. H

52)

Dr. Prabhu and his colleagues believe that the west can learn a good deal from the developing world. B

53)

Steve Jobs’ Apple products prove the jugaad idea of simplicity. M

54)

According to Dr. Prabhu and his co-authors, Six Sigma management philosophy will do great harm to Western economy. J

55)

Seeking opportunity in tough times is one of the principles of jugaad innovation. C

56)

Developed-world corporations are improving their competitiveness by adopting the idea of radical affordability. F

57)

Competition from developing-world companies contributes in part to the time of scarcity Western companies face. K

58)

Western companies have got to learn about the jugaad approach by opening R&D offices in developing countries. G

参考答案:

49) D      50) M      51) H      52) B      53) M      54) J      55) C      56) F      57) K      58) G

解析:

(无)
∨ 展开解析
0

Copyright © 2021 abiscuit