1) B 2) A 3) C 4) A
Seat belts protect drivers and passengers in case of accident. They also reduce the effect of a crash on the body. Safety experts estimate that the restraining devices save more than four thousand lives a year in the United States alone.
The first seat belt was said to have been created in the 1800s by George Cayley of England. He is remembered for many inventions, especially for early “flying machines.”
The United States first recognized the invention of an automobile seat belt in 1849. The government gave a patent to Edward J. Claghorn of New York City so that others would not copy his invention. Claghorn called the device a Safety-Belt.
But more than one hundred years passed before the current, widely used seat belt was developed. It resulted from the work of a Swedish engineer, Nils Bohlin. His three-point, lap and shoulder seat belt first appeared on cars in Europe fifty years ago.
After completing college, Bohlin designed seats for the Swedish aircraft industry. The seats were built for the pilot to escape from an airplane in case of disaster. Bohlin’s work with planes showed him what could happen in a crash at high speed. In 1958, Bohlin brought that knowledge to the Swedish car manufacturer Volvo. He was the company’s first chief safety engineer.
At the time, most safety belts in cars crossed the body over the stomach. A buckle held the restraints in place. But the position of the buckle often caused severe injuries in bad crashes.
Nils Bohlin recognized that both the upper and lower body needed to be held securely in place. His invention contained a cloth strap that was placed across the chest and another strap across the hips. The design joined the straps next to the hip.
Volvo was the first automobile manufacturer to offer the modern seat belt as a pumanent addition to its cars. It also provided use of Nils Bohlin’s design to other car-makers.
patent n. 专利
buckle n. （皮带等的）搭扣，搭钩
Who was said to have invented the first seat belt according to the passage?
What did Bohlin first do after completing his college?
What do we know about the seat belt Bohlin developed according to the passage?
What does the passage mainly talk about?
5) C 6) A 7) B 8) A
A leading group of American doctors is warning against forcing young people to become skilled in a single sport. It says young people who play just one sport face additional physical or other demands from intense training and competition. It says children involved in sports should be urged to take part in different activities and develop many skills.
The group notes that more and more children are skilled in one sport at an early age. Some of the most famous athletes first became active in a sport when they were five years old. A few started even earlier. The group notes that the successes of young athletes can be a powerful example for others to follow. It says children wishing to compete at a high level require training that could be considered extreme even for adults. It says the necessary desire and intensity of training raise many concerns about the safety of high-level athletic activity for any young person.
The group says the health effects of intense training in young athletes need to be fully investigated. Risks to young athletes include injuries, eating disorders and emotional stress.
The group offers some suggestions. It urges children to become involved in sports at levels that meet their abilities and interests. It says doctors should work with parents to make sure that someone knowledgeable is training the child athlete. That person should know correct methods of training, equipment and the physical and emotional health of young competitors.
The group says doctors should supervise the condition of child athletes involved in intense training. It says doctors and trainers should work to prevent injuries that result from too much physical activity. Doctors should make sure the children eat a healthy, balanced diet. And doctors should watch for signs of too much training, including weight loss and sleep problems.
supervise v. 监督
What does a leading group of American doctors urge children to do?
What does the group say about those successful young athletes?
What should doctors do according to the group?
What suggestion does the group offer to children according to the passage?
9) C 10) A 11) B 12) A
W: Mr. Kiffler, here in Human Resources, we’ve received complaints about your working style. Many older employees feel your behavior is rushed, disrespectful and rude.
M: What? Are you serious? That’s so unfair! I work so hard to make up for all the time they’ve wasted! And they are calling me rude? Wow!!
W: “All – the – time – they – waste?”
M: Yes! Example: I email Mr. Clarkson a simple question BUT instead of emailing me back, he comes by my office to talk about it. Everything takes soooooooooo long!
W: I’m hearing a lot these days about cultural shifts in timing and pacing – so much faster for the younger generation – causing big problems…
M: Cultural shifts? Excuse me Ms. Palmer. The older generation is too slow, too lazy for the new technology. Basically, I think they don’t want to learn or change!
W: Mr. Kiffler, that’s the attitude I’m talking about. Things are never as simple as they seem. It’s true that older people often resist change, staying with what they know and trust. Technology can be challenging and difficult.
M: Like how Mr. Marshal keeps asking me to fix basic computer problems he could easily fix himself with five minutes of trial and error?
W: Mr. Kiffler, I want you to slow down and listen. You’re a good employee and we value your work. You’ve been here for nine months. Many of those people have been here for 20-30 years.
M: That’s no excuse!
W: No! Wait. This isn’t about excuses. This is about communication styles and respect. You have to slow down and take time to get to know and show respect to your co-workers who are older. You both have a lot to learn from each other.
trial and error 试错法，从失败中找到解决办法
What is the man’s attitude when he hears of the complaints about his working style?
What does the man expect the older generations to do?
What does the woman advice the man to do?
Which of the following words best describes the man?
We do not believe that anyone actually consciously thinks this way, but when we have helped people ________ their emotions, in retrospect, that is what it actually boils down to.
I want you to have your own thoughts and feelings, even if they ________ with mine.
It was another ________ in his amazing recovery since a horrific motorway smash two months ago.
The king is reported as having told the priests that they must ________ the practice bitterly, and if this did not succeed, he would take further measures.
The light was ________ as quickly as it had come, and her shoulders curled with disappointment.
The original answer had been from a woman and the French had ________ her.
It was not simply a matter of exporting enough to pay for necessary imports, as contemporary economic ________ often suggested.
The ________ of political neutrality seeks to implement it through a policy of neutrality.
Unfortunately he pays little attention to the differences and the effects these have upon the implications of what we ________ to animals whilst using the same forms of words.
Every now and then she feels the urge to do something exciting and ________; people are never quite sure what to expect from her.
The form of social control is more ________, aiming to reintegrate children and families into society rather than to rescue children and punish parents.
The committee was satisfied that minor incidents of misconduct or ________ of the chairman had been well handled by the directors within the rules.
It advises artists to ________ from smoking or eating while painting, to use face masks and to provide adequate ventilation (通风) by means of an extractor fan.
It is ridiculous that a man who has no claim on the world’s attention should nonetheless be able to exact (强求) full ________ from his wife.
________, even he was sometimes touched by doubt, but in contrast to many other leading political figures, his faith in the country was remarkably strong and consistent.
When buying a puppy, try and ensure it is well-bred and ________ by a breeder who has some aim to produce well-tempered stock.
I don’t mean to say that there was no privacy in this country. But, what I experience in an office made me
as to what privacy really meant to many people there. One day, I went into the office. Seeing people
their quite personal stories in front of many others made me uncomfortable… “Do as the Romans do” I told myself. So, I waited
and tried to avoid the sound coming from the person in front of the line. Then, I sensed that someone was
through my shoulder and stared at the paper that I was holding. “Do as the Romans do” I murmured quietly. Moments later, my brother came and we discussed at the corner of the office with the documents open on the desk. Almost
, I saw a man was staring at the documents. His staring lasted (about three minutes) till I
reminded him that it was a personal document and … My mouth dropped seeing him exploded at me, reminding me with
that it was a public place and he stared at just the desk not the document.
This 36) incident made me remember what I went through when I visit doctors while I was living in the city. Whoever visited doctors knew that doctors questioned their patients in front of all the other patients or listeners. Quite embarrassing sometimes, 37) admittedly , when you have to involuntarily take the 38) intimate information of someone else, which you really don’t want to.
- A. incident
- B. insulated
- C. immediately
- D. ideologically
- E. baffled
- F. constrict
- G. hesitantly
- H. admittedly
- I. obedience
- J. peering
- K. intimate
- L. revealing
- M. overlapping
- N. patiently
- O. indignation
29) baffled 30) revealing 31) patiently 32) peering 33) immediately 34) hesitantly 35) indignation 36) incident 37) admittedly 38) intimate
How many ways are there to say “No” without offending anyone’s feeling? Well, there are “No, I can’t”, “No, I don’t have time” and “No, I don’t want to”. But the problem is that many of us try to avoid situations that require us to say “No” to people. In almost every culture this little word is associated with rejection, failure, egoism and a lack of tact and empathy (感同身受) towards others.
I cannot recall how many times I have eaten burnt, undercooked, bland (淡而无味的) and poorly tasting dishes simply because I did not want to hurt the feelings of the person who had cooked them. Or the times when I bought something I did not need, because I felt guilty leaving a shop empty-handed after spending 20 minutes of the shop assistant’s time.
Whether it is our manager, a customer service representative or an acquaintance asking for a favor, for some unexplainable reason many of us feel mental resistance when we have to voice a straight-forward “No”.
If you are a rare exception, who has no problem saying “I wish I could, but I do not want to” please share your secret! What is running through your head when an 8-year old with huge blue eyes offers you to buy a box of Girl Scouts cookies? Or when your boss asks you in a matter-of-fact voice if you can stay after hours to finish a project?
How do you say “No” without offending anyone or feeling guilty afterwards?
On the other hand, how do you NOT say “No” when you know that if you go along with everything other people want from you, you would be physically, mentally and emotionally exhausted?
I believe the answer to this question lies in the wisdom of the Eastern world. You see, many oriental cultures, Chinese being one of them, do not even have a “N”- word. Instead, they use thousands of ways to express their disagreement and none of them involves saying a straight-forward “No”.
There is a great lesson to be learned from such approach to communication.
If just like me, you sometimes find it difficult to be direct about saying “No”, you can still be assertive and express your disagreement in a more subtle, yet equally powerful way. The great thing about this method is that it gets your point across without making you look bad, unprofessional, insensitive or uncaring.
What does saying “No” mean in most cultures according to the passage?
Which of the following statement is true about the author according to the passage?
Why should we learn from the wisdom of communication approach in the Eastern world?
Which of the following is closest in meaning to the phrase “get your point across” (Para.9)?
Which of the following cannot be inferred from the passage?
39) C 40) A 41) C 42) B 43) D
The widely publicized energy-saving bulbs, which now are a source of light in millions of Chinese households, may well be causing mercury pollution in many parts of the country.
Still, an official of the Guangdong provincial bureau of environmental protection said the department has “not come up with any concrete and effective measure to cope with mercury pollution” so far.
The provincial government has subsidized (补贴) rates to help promote the use of more than eight million energy-saving lamps and light bulbs this year.
But Guangdong, an economic powerhouse of the country, has “yet to establish a system to recycle the large number of bulbs and lamps that are disposed of daily”, said the official.
In just Guangzhou, capital of Guangdong, about 650,000 energy-saving bulbs have already been used this year.
If the used bulbs are not recycled, “more than 117 million tons of water will be polluted”, said Liu Hong, an expert from the energy research institute under the National Development and Reform Commission, the country’s top economic planning agency.
“A single energy-saving bulb usually contains an average of 0.5 milligram of mercury. And 1 milligram of mercury is enough to pollute about 360 tons of water,” Liu said, urging relevant government departments to act fast before it is too late.
Li Qusheng, a professor from the Guangzhou-based Ji’nan University, suggested setting up a “special treatment center” that focuses on recycling used energy-saving bulbs in the province.
“China should learn a thing or two from Europe and Japan. They’ve been quite successful in handling the problem of mercury pollution,” the professor told China Daily.
“The mercury may pollute the water and the soil even if you burn or bury the used bulbs, which are hazardous (危险的) waste,” Li said.
Many collection depots (储存处) in the provincial capital reportedly refuse to recycle disposable energy-saving bulbs, citing low profits from the move.
What is the problem Guangdong province is facing according to an official?
About how much water could be polluted by one single energy-saving bulb?
Which of the following is true according to the passage?
Why are many collection depots reluctant to recycle disposable energy-saving bulbs?
Which of the following could be the best title for this passage?
44) C 45) D 46) D 47) B 48) A
It’s never too early to start teaching our kids
A) Some children come to school knowing their alphabet. They can count to 10, write their names and tell you their favorite books. For other children, the first time they read a book is the day they start school. These children have to be shown that a book opens, and taught how to sit and hold it and how to turn the pages.
B) Any teacher will tell you, children are at different stages when they start school and children’s family and social background are very essential in how well they do at school, because the experiences of their first years are crucial in determining their readiness for school. As Brian Croke, Deputy Chairman of the National Catholic Education Commission puts it: “Students start off school unequal; they don’t become unequal at school or through school. They might become more unequal through the sort of school they’re in and the resources of the school. The real inequity happens before school.”
C) Pediatrician (儿科医生) Frank Oberklaid, founding director of the Centre for Community Child Health at the Royal Children’s Hospital in Melbourne, puts it even more strongly: “If children are at the disadvantage when they start school, it’s too late,” he says. “They spend the rest of their school years trying to catch up, and many never do. We know absolutely that learning starts at birth. The first five years before kids get to school are probably the most important years in terms of education. But we’re still having a debate about access and quality of childcare. It’s crazy.”
D) Oberklaid is one of the architects of the Australian Early Development Index (AEDI). The AEDI, which is conducted every three years by the federal government, assesses every child in their first year of school in five areas of development: physical health and well-being; social competence; emotional maturity; language and cognitive skills; communication skills and general knowledge. It starkly (鲜明地) displays the communities housing children who are falling behind developmentally for their age when they start school.
E) A paper presented by Croke at the annual conference of the Australian College of Educators last month looked at those communities where five percent or more of children were struggling in their language and cognitive abilities, necessary in developing literacy skills.
F) Croke matched those areas with schools performing substantially below average in national reading tests for Year five students. The results were an obvious reminder of the social divide in our nation; the schools with the lowest scores were predominantly in areas with the vulnerable children. The pattern holds across Australia. After at least six years of formal education, the children who started school behind their peers have made little progress in catching up. He says the data confirms what teachers knew instinctively but it is the first time schools and governments have had it in black-and-white. “We have been relying too much on the school alone and the data says we can’t go on with that,” he says. “As a community, we need to get more serious and more systematic about the way we integrate at the preschool, at the community level. This is the community challenge, to integrate education and family development and health.”
G) The counter-argument is that what schools have been doing is not working or that the concept of a school needs to change. Realizing this, some schools are redefining themselves. At St Albans in Melbourne’s northwestern suburbs, Dianne Blake, principal of the Sacred Heart Primary School, oversees a school that acts as a community hub for its parents. The school coordinates a range of services: from an on-site psychologist to hospital care, from speech pathologists (病理学家) and occupational therapists to advice on renting a house. About 30 percent of its students were assessed on the AEDI as being vulnerable in one developmental area and 40 percent were at risk in two areas. About one-third of the school’s students were born overseas and 90 percent of parents are migrants or refugees, with one-third of students coming from Africa. More than four in five students speak English as a second language.
H) But, by Year three, students have caught up. In the national literacy and numeracy tests, the Sacred Heart students are above the national average in literacy and at the average in numeracy. By Year five, they are further ahead. Blake attributes the school’s success to its relationships with students and their families, learning about the students and the school’s teaching practices. “The first time children put school bags on their backs to come to school, they come with different experiences and tools in their backpack. It’s really important we understand what’s in the children’s schoolbags and their different experiences,” she says.
I) “Usually we’ve had parents who are literate in their own language but some of these families never had the opportunity to go to school themselves. That’s new in Australia. We have to be conscious of what we expect of parents and that we work closely with parents to help them understand what we’re trying to achieve.”
J) Obviously, children need help before they reach the school gate, which is about early childhood education, and how to develop services aiming to supplement the deficiencies in some children’s backgrounds, to help them start school better prepared is required.
K) Oberklaid believes the origins of childcare as a women’s workforce policy – providing babysitting to enable women to return to the workforce – is at least 50 years out of date and has to be discarded, and the early years incorporated into an integrated school system that starts from birth.
L) Research into brain development shows that the experiences and environment in the first years of life affect the way the brain develops. “It literally affects brain circuitry,” Oberklaid says. “As people grow older, those circuits in the brain stabilize and become much less plastic. If you try to learn a new skill as an adult, whether a language or a musical instrument, it’s very difficult and the reason is the brain’s plasticity decreases over time.” It’s like the foundations of a house. If you take shortcuts, like using cheaper cement, everything that follows is potentially at risk. “You can go back and fix the foundations, but it’s expensive and difficult and never as good as if you got it right at the beginning. And the longer you leave it, the harder it gets, the more complicated it gets.”
M) Oberklaid argues that if governments designed a school system from scratch today, based on what is known about child development and learning, it would look nothing like the schools children attend. He envisages (设想) a model where primary school stretches from birth to about Year three or four, a middle school to about Year eight or nine, and a senior school.
N) Interestingly, parents resist the idea of early learning. A survey of attitudes to the concept of early learning a few years ago found that parents disliked the idea. But Oberklaid says early learning seeks to provide those experiences children from middle-class and educated families grow up with: good nutrition; protection from infection and injury; a stimulating, language-rich environment, and being read to regularly.
The good relationships with the students and their families is key to the success of a school in catching up with others in terms of literacy and numeracy. H
It is found that after over six years’ formal education, kids behind their peers when enrolled have advanced little in catching up. F
It’s very difficult for adults to learn a new skill because the plasticity of their brains decreases over time. L
Oberklaid emphasized that learning started at birth and the first five preschool years might be the most crucial period of one’s education. C
Some kids start school without any preparation while others can count to 10, write their names, and know their favorite books. A
Some people believe that the current school education is not successful and the school concept needs redefining. G
The Australian government conducts AEDI to evaluate every child’s development in different areas in their first academic year. D
Although experts emphasize the importance of early learning, parents resist the idea. N
Language and cognitive abilities are necessities in developing children’s literacy skills. E
Oberklaid holds that the policy that babysitting should be provided so that women can go back to workforce is quite out of date and should be discarded. K
49) H 50) F 51) L 52) C 53) A 54) G 55) D 56) N 57) E 58) K