读写4-于东-b4u5
长对话4题,总分值:8分
Directions: In this section, you'll hear some long conversations. At the end of each conversation, some questions will be asked. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question, choose the best answer from the four choices marked A, B, C, and D.
1)

2)

3)

4)

参考答案:

1) A      2) B      3) D      4) C

解析:

(无)

听力文本:

W: Hey Richard, I am so excited! This is our first trip to Los Angeles, California, and I can’t wait! Disneyland, here we come!!

M: Well, you know, of all the Disneyland parks in the world, I have been to every one of them, except for the original one, the Disneyland here in southern California, which was built in 1955.

W: I know! But, what is it about Disneyland that makes you so happy?

M: Well, Mickey Mouse, of course! And, I guess … hmmm, you know, I think it’s because Disneyland helps me feel like a kid again with a simple, joyful experience!

W: Well, I am really glad to be going to Disneyland with my favorite brother, then! But, hey! Let’s be sure to see some other things in southern California too!

M: Sure! What do you want to see?

W: Well, I want to go see the HOLLYWOOD Sign and walk down the beach at the Pacific Ocean. Most of all, I want to go and walk down to the street where there are many fancy shops. I love all those shops and want to look for movie stars who are shopping there!

M: Wait! Wait! And, what about the old historic movie theaters where they always have the world movie premieres? Those theaters are amazing to see – and they have a lot of history, too! Like the Los Angeles Theatre. It is very famous. It was built in 1931 and has been showing movies ever since!

W: And another theater we must see here in Los Angeles is a Chinese-style theatre which was built in 1926 and where you can see all of the movie stars’ hand prints and foot prints!

M: Yeah, I think I know which one you are talking about. It was also the theatre that had the first showing of a very famous science-fiction movie in the 1970s, and it is called …

W: … Star Wars !

M: Yes, exactly, Star Wars , first shown in 1977.


What are the two speakers doing?

Why does the man like Disneyland?

What would the woman like to do most?

Where will the two speakers probably go?

∨ 展开解析
长文章8题,总分值:16分
Directions: In this section, you’ll hear some passages. At the end of each passage, you'll hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question, choose the best answer from the four choices marked A, B, C, and D.
5)

6)

7)

8)

参考答案:

5) C      6) B      7) D      8) C

解析:

(无)

听力文本:

Movies are a fantastic source of entertainment for modern people. In recent years, a new technology has become widely used in movies. This is 3D technology. 3D movies are growing in numbers. Producers and directors are investing lots of money, time, and effort to produce them.

3D movies are made possible with the use of 3D glasses. These glasses are made of red and blue lenses. They feed different images into your eyes. When 3D movies are shown, your brain forms the visual illusion of a three dimensional image with the use of 3D glasses.

3D technology has made movie watching more exciting and realistic. In 3D movies, the characters seem to “jump off” the screen and appear very realistic. With 3D glasses, you will feel like you are part of the action. When a character is shooting a gun, you feel like you are the one who is being shot. When a plane is crashing, you also feel like you are inside the plane, which creates a more intense emotion during the action. You are not just simply watching the movie; you feel as if you are with the characters in everything they do.

Although 3D technology has given more life and excitement to the movie industry, there are critics who do not fully believe that 3D movies are entertaining. For them, 3D technology doesn’t really give viewers a new experience. Instead, it only causes them a headache after watching the movie, not to mention that the image seems rather dim.

Despite the criticism, there are movie fans who highly appreciate 3D movies. It’s good to know that 3D movies are gaining popularity all across the globe. This means that the movie industry has taken one step higher.


How do 3D glasses function when 3D movies are viewed?

How do viewers feel when they watch a 3D movie?

What criticism about 3D movies is mentioned?

What does the speaker think of 3D movies?

∨ 展开解析
9)

10)

11)

12)

参考答案:

9) D      10) C      11) B      12) A

解析:

(无)

听力文本:

We enjoy and collect art. We admire those who create art. But what do we mean when we say that a particular work of art is beautiful?

One thing we obviously mean is that such a piece of art is pleasant to our senses. We human beings tend to find the same kinds of things beautiful: sunsets, for example, and their brilliant color, the songs of birds, or perhaps the curves of a tree. These things are recreated in art, and it is the power of recreation that makes art beautiful.

There is another and probably a more important reason why art is beautiful. It has to do with tension. Tension is created in art in various ways. For example, it is created in architecture when hard, vertical columns are placed against delicate, curving ones. It is created in music when harsh, loud sounds compete with gentle, soft ones. And it is created in dance when fast, sudden movements are combined with slow, flowing ones.

It is such tension that makes a work of art special to us. The tension speaks to both the good and the bad, both the easy and the difficult in life. Art that is happy all the time is not necessarily good art. Good art is often filled with tension.

Tension is important for an object to be beautiful because our own lives are filled with opposites. We describe our emotional lives in terms of opposites: happy, sad; angry, passionate; crying, laughing. Good art reflects these opposites in our lives and makes us understand them better. Really good art sometimes contains ugliness, hate, cruelty and other things we would never hope to see in real life. These bad things in life hurt, but art can heal that pain, and in that healing lies true beauty.


Why are sunsets and bird songs mentioned in the talk?

What is special for good art according to the speaker?

What is a possible way to create tension in dance?

Why is tension an important feature of artistic beauty?

∨ 展开解析
词汇与结构16题,总分值:16分
Directions: For each of the following sentences there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the best one to complete each sentence.

Population movements may trigger conflicts and environmental degradation in destination areas, which ________ can create further health crises and population displacement.

参考答案:

13) B

解析:

(无)

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Knowing that there had been some unexplained ________ between the two women, Martin had kept them apart as much as possible during the trip to Los Angeles.

参考答案:

14) D

解析:

(无)

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In the last campaign, he was way behind even into December, but he ended up being the ________ of the party to run for president three or four weeks later.

参考答案:

15) A

解析:

(无)

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Any person who, due to employment or position, has access to ________ information may not reveal that information without the authorization of the owner.

参考答案:

16) D

解析:

(无)

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________ not quarreled and fought, they might not have left the road, and the afternoon would have been no different from countless others.

参考答案:

17) B

解析:

(无)

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I was especially touched when the citizens of these towns made me a(n) ________ citizen and thanked me for telling the important story of their past glory.

参考答案:

18) A

解析:

(无)

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A special council which was ________ last week to rewrite the state’s tax code called for the state to move away from income taxes and toward consumption taxes.

参考答案:

19) D

解析:

(无)

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As students become more connected to the electronic world, teachers will find themselves compelled to ________ technology in the classroom.

参考答案:

20) D

解析:

(无)

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In the first trial, those tapes were not admitted as evidence, on the grounds that his attorney unveiled their existence only after the ________ got under way.

参考答案:

21) C

解析:

(无)

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Some scholars argue that the underdevelopment of East and Central Europe may ________ be accounted for by their geographic location, and resources, or the lack thereof.

参考答案:

22) A

解析:

(无)

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This is the world’s largest industrial ________, held each year in Germany, displaying hundreds of robotic arms and sensor systems.

参考答案:

23) D

解析:

(无)

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When put in control of pricing, customers are in fact not ruled by greed alone. ________, they seem more inclined to pay more and less enthusiastic about taking.

参考答案:

24) A

解析:

(无)

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Workplace representatives are usually unpaid volunteers who act on behalf of their colleagues and peers, to ________ relations with the employer or managers.

参考答案:

25) C

解析:

(无)

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Today’s personal computers are vulnerable to worms and viruses, and hence someone with ________ intent could seize control of them.

参考答案:

26) C

解析:

(无)

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After talking to his friend, he realized that all he could do was to focus on mending his relationship with his wife ________ his kids.

参考答案:

27) A

解析:

(无)

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When I reached the ________ of the two streets, I paused to consider my route as I didn’t want to pass the school and face the possibility of a chance meeting with Julia.

参考答案:

28) B

解析:

(无)

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选词填空(15选10)10题,总分值:20分
Directions: Fill in the blanks in the following passage by selecting suitable words from the word bank. Each word can be used only once.

Throughout American history, the image of Chinese immigrants and Chinese Americans has switched from positive to negative and back again. Along with this 29) inconsistency and changeability, various labels have been attached to Chinese Americans: the hard-working railroad workers, the restaurant workers, the kung fu masters, and the “aliens” who speak 30) accented English. Too often, these images have been grounded in stereotypes. The most recent stereotype that has 31) emerged is that Asian Americans as a whole are a “model minority”, achieving success in record numbers due to some 32) inherent cultural characteristics.

This stereotype is a myth that needs to be debunked (揭穿). While sociologists and others have observed that Chinese Americans are more likely than other Americans to have gone to college, to have advanced educational degrees and to have low rates of divorce, the stereotype 33) assumes that these statistics hold true for any individual Chinese or Asian American. The fact is that the stereotype does not 34) account for the complexity of the Chinese American immigrant experience. Today’s wave of immigrants range from the highly educated to the poor and 35) unskilled , many of whom find themselves in difficult jobs with low pay and little advancement.

Like other groups of Americans, the Chinese American community is not a single community; it is the 36) composite of many. While some individuals are highly successful, others still struggle at the 37) margins of American life. We need to view such generalizations from a comprehensive perspective, rather than 38) hedge any ethnic group in with a fixed model.

  • A.  certify
  • B.  assumes
  • C.  account
  • D.  inherent
  • E.  hedge
  • F.  composite
  • G.  margins
  • H.  exposition
  • I.  sophisticated
  • J.  emerged
  • K.  accented
  • L.  unskilled
  • M.  refutes
  • N.  convened
  • O.  inconsistency

参考答案:

29) inconsistency      30) accented      31) emerged      32) inherent      33) assumes      34) account      35) unskilled      36) composite      37) margins      38) hedge

∨ 展开解析
阅读理解10题,总分值:20分
Directions: Read the following passages carefully. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished sentences. For each of them there are four choices marked A, B, C, and D. Choose the best answer to each question.

Gregory Currie, a professor of philosophy at the University of Nottingham, recently argued in The New York Times that we ought not to claim that literature improves us as people, because there is no “compelling evidence that suggests that people are morally or socially better for reading Tolstoy” or other great books.

Actually, there is such evidence. Raymond Mar, a psychologist at York University in Canada, and Keith Oatley, a professor of cognitive psychology at the University of Toronto, reported in studies published in 2006 and 2009 that individuals who often read fiction appear to be better able to understand other people, empathize (起共鸣) with them and view the world from their perspective. This link persisted even after the researchers factored in the possibility that more empathetic individuals might choose to read more novels.

Recent research in cognitive science, psychology and neuroscience has demonstrated that deep reading of books is a distinctive experience, very different from the information-driven reading we do on the Web. Although deep reading does not, strictly speaking, require a conventional book, the built-in limits of the printed page are uniquely conducive to the deep reading experience. A book’s lack of hyperlinks allowing the reader to remain fully immersed in the narrative, without having to make such decisions as whether to click on a link or not.

That immersion is supported by the way the brain handles language rich in sensory detail and emotional and moral complexity, by creating a mental representation that draws on the same brain regions that would be active if the scene were unfolding in real life. The emotional situations and moral dilemmas that are the stuff of literature are also vigorous exercise for the brain, propelling us inside the heads of fictional characters and even increasing our real-life capacity for empathy.

This is not reading as many young people are coming to know it. Their reading, mostly done onscreen, is pragmatic (实际的) and instrumental. If we allow our children to believe reading onscreen is all there is, we will have deprived them of an enjoyable and enlightening experience that will enlarge them as people. Instead molding our education around young people’s attachment to digital devices and onscreen habits, we need to show them some place they’ve never been, a place only deep reading can take them.

39)

Prof. Gregory Currie argues that ___________.

40)

The studies of Raymond Mar and Keith Oatley show that ___________.

41)

Deep reading of books ___________, compared with reading on the web.

42)

In doing deep reading, the brain ___________.

43)

It can be learned from the passage that the author ___________.

参考答案:

39) B      40) D      41) C      42) B      43) D

解析:

(无)
∨ 展开解析

Asian stereotypes are everywhere. More often than not, if you see an Asian American depicted on the screen, you’ll also see an Asian stereotype. These stereotypes are unrealistic and offensive, but unfortunately they often fall under the popular radar and go unnoticed and unquestioned.

One of the most pervasive Asian stereotypes is that Asian Americans are foreigners who cannot be assimilated. Because Asian Americans are racially and culturally distinctive from the American mainstream, so / and they have been widely seen as unable to be absorbed into American society. According to this view, anything Asians do is thus inherently “alien” to America. For instance, mainstream TV and movie often portray Asian Americans as being “unassimilated”, or having “exotic” qualities like martial arts ability, accented English, and a propensity (嗜好) for eating strange things.

The problem in my experience is that these few portrayals end up being what people expect of me, and other Asian Americans, too. When people look at me, they expect something that I am not – they expect an exotic “other” that doesn’t belong “here”, that is, in the United States. I often encounter people who assume that I’m either an immigrant restaurant worker or an international student at the local university – two things that place an immigrant or foreign identity on me, even though I’m an American citizen and have been living in the US my entire life.

The stereotype of Asian Americans as foreign or “other” is embedded in American culture and passes by unnoticed. My identity as an Asian American becomes invisible. It creates a divide between who I am and how I am perceived – it’s like my US citizenship status is dictated by my appearance and my ethnic background.

How do we fix these things? We should become more aware. We think about them and talk about them. We maybe even yell about them. We acknowledge how these representations make us feel uncomfortable about ourselves, or, in the best cases, proud to be who we are. As people of color, we should fight for the right to our own identities and who we are. It’s an ongoing process: think, talk, yell, and fight.

44)

The author thinks that Asian stereotypes in American society ___________.

45)

Asian Americans tend to be considered as ___________.

46)

It can be inferred that the author probably believes ___________.

47)

How does the author feel about his experience as an Asian American?

48)

Which of the following approach best fits the author’s suggestions on how to correct Asian stereotypes?

参考答案:

44) D      45) B      46) A      47) D      48) C

解析:

(无)
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长篇阅读10题,总分值:20分
Directions: You are going to read a passage with 10 statements attached to it. Each statement contains information given in one of the paragraphs. Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived. You may choose a paragraph more than once. Each paragraph is marked with a letter.

How the World Eats

A) Originally the food of emperors, the Japanese food known as kaiseki is the most important part of Japanese eating – and few restaurants serve a more refined menu than Kikunoi in Kyoto. Kaiseki dining is the product of centuries of cultural evolution, but though Kikunoi is high-end, its food is meant to be a grand elaboration of the basic Japanese home meal: rice, fish, pickles, vegetables and miso soup, artfully presented in small, healthy portions.

B) “I believe that Japanese food is something embedded in Japanese people’s DNA,” says Kikunoi’s owner, Yoshihiro Murata. That may be true, but it’s a legacy under attack, increasingly crowded out by fast, convenient, Westernized food. These days, Murata says sadly, his college-age daughter doesn’t see much difference between cheap restaurant food and the cuisine he makes. “I think that in Japan, people should eat good Japanese food,” he says. “But they are far away from it.”

C) Japan is not alone. Food and diet are the cornerstones of any culture, one of the most reliable symbols of national identity. Think of the long Spanish lunch followed by the afternoon siesta, a rhythm of food and rest perfectly suited to the fierce heat of the Iberian Peninsula in summer. Think of the Chinese meal of rice, vegetables and (only recently) meat, usually served in big collective dishes, the better for extended clans to dine together. National diets come to incorporate all aspects of who we are: our religious taboos, class structure, geography, economy, even government.

D) Even the traditions we learn from others we adopt and adapt in ways that make them our own. Japan received chopsticks from China. Tomatoes arrived in Southern Europe only as part of the Columbian Exchange. “A lot of what we think of as deeply rooted cultural traditions are really traceable back to global exchange,” says Miriam Chaiken, a nutritional anthropologist at Indiana University of Pennsylvania.

E) In an era of instant communication and accelerated trade, those cultural exchanges have exploded, leading to something closer to cultural homogenization. That’s bad for not only the preservation of national identities but the preservation of health, too. McDonald’s is everywhere. From Chile to China, the risk of obesity, diabetes and heart disease is on the rise. This, in turn, is leading to a mini movement in some countries to hold fast to traditional food culture, even as their menu grows ever more international.

F) Such longing for what was may be only natural, but before we get too misty over the way we used to eat, it’s important to remember that the first purpose of food is to keep us alive – something that used to be a lot harder than it is today. For thousands of years, humans were chiefly agrarian, which meant that you ate only what you could grow or slaughter yourself or trade for locally.

G) Africa, which strains under so much political and economic hardship, is the place where this ancient reality is in greatest evidence today. Throughout much of the continent, people remain tied to the land and therefore dependent on it. Most meals are keyed around a single calorie-rich starch (淀粉). Meat remains a rare indulgence, something reserved for holidays and feasts. Even relatively well-fed populations like the Iraqw of Tanzania, who typically eat three full meals a day, must brace for periods when that is impossible. “In times of food insecurity – right before a harvest – or in a bad year, they will reduce this to two or one meals,” says Crystal Patil, an anthropologist at the University of Illinois in Chicago. “If there are several bad years in a row, it can be devastating.”

H) All human cultures may have started out with this kind of day-to-day, harvest-to-harvest existence, but the better environmental hand that people of other regions drew – richer soil, fewer droughts, milder temperatures – allowed them to tame their land, meaning that the food they ate and the lives they lived could evolve together. In agrarian, preindustrial Europe, for example, “You’d want to wake up early, start working with the sunrise, have a break to have the largest meal, and then you’d go back to work,” says Ken Albala, a professor of history at the University of the Pacific. “Later, at five or six, you’d have a smaller supper.”

I) This comfortable cycle, in which the rhythms of the day helped shape the rhythms of the meals, gave rise to the custom of the large midday meal, eaten with the extended family, that is still observed in pockets of Southern and Western Europe.

J) Since industrialization, maintaining such a slow cultural metabolism has been much harder, with the long midday meal shrunk to whatever could be stuffed into a lunch bucket or bought at a food stand. Certainly, there were benefits. Modern techniques for producing and shipping food led to greater variety and quantity, including a tremendous increase in the amount of animal protein and dairy products available, making us stronger than our ancestors.

K) Yet plenty has been lost too, even in cultures that still live to eat. Take Italy. It’s no secret that the Mediterranean diet – with its emphasis on olive oil, seafood and fresh produce – is healthy, but it was also a joy to prepare and eat. Italians traditionally began the day with a small meal, consisting of light baked goods and coffee. The big meal came at around 1 p.m. and included a first course of pasta, rice or soup; a second of meat and vegetables; a third, fruit course and, of course, wine. In between the midday meal and a late, smaller dinner came a small snack. Today, when time zones have less and less meaning, there is little tolerance for offices’ closing for lunch, and worsening traffic in cities means workers can’t make it home and back fast enough anyway. So the formerly small supper after sundown becomes the big meal of the day, the only one at which the family has a chance to get together.

L) South Americans are struggling with similar changes. John Brett, a nutritional anthropologist at the University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center, says that many Latin Americans too prefer a large family meal at midday. But migration from the country to the cities has made that impossible. “They don’t have the luxury of two hours of lunch,” says Brett. “The economy moves on.” Not only do these changes add stress for families, but nutritional quality declines as well.

M) It shouldn’t be surprising that the societies that have been most successful at retaining food cultures are the ones that have also resisted the pull of Westernization – for better and worse. In many Middle Eastern countries, extended families still live together, and women stay in the home preparing the kinds of traditional meals that women elsewhere no longer can. Diets in the Middle East also show the influence of religion; besides widely observed taboos on pork and alcohol, the fasting month of Ramadan (斋月) alters Middle Eastern eating habits. While Muslims fast from sunup to sundown, Ramadan nights are marked by calorie-heavy indulgence.

N) Outside the most conservative nations in the Muslim world, it has proved difficult to hold on to the pleasures of traditional eating. But that’s not to say that people don’t long for the old ways all the same – inspiring movements in some nations to rediscover how Mom used to prepare a meal. In Europe, Asia and the US, the Slow Food movement – a kind of alimentary (食物的,营养的) Greenpeace – campaigns against fast food while championing traditionally prepared meals. Bolivians regularly hold food fairs that celebrate South American staples even as they develop ways to speed up the time-intensive preparation of native meals so that Bolivians can enjoy the dishes of the past at the pace of today. Yet while we might clean up the worst of the fast-food excesses, trying to preserve the diets that keep us both culturally and physically healthier, no one pretends we’re ever going to turn back the clock entirely.

49)

People today become physically stronger than their ancestors with greater variety, quantity and nutrition of food brought about by modern producing and delivering techniques. J

50)

National cultures and traditions that are thought to have been long established can find their origins in international exchange. D

51)

Food cultures are well preserved in countries and societies where there has been resistance to the influence of the Western world. M

52)

With worsening traffic in cities, working people can no longer afford a traditional big midday meal at home. K

53)

Every aspect of a nation, from religion to politics, is incorporated into food and diet, forming the basis of its culture and national identity. C

54)

With environmental privilege, people can harvest sufficient food and live an enjoyable life at the same time. H

55)

Some nations have launched a small movement to preserve both food culture and people’s health. E

56)

Globally, people try varied means to preserve the traditional food culture, without the intention of coming back into the old ways completely. N

57)

In Africa, constant political and economic unrest makes it hard for people to meet a higher need for food. G

58)

As a very important part of Japanese culture, Japanese food is in danger of being increasingly replaced by Western food. B

参考答案:

49) J      50) D      51) M      52) K      53) C      54) H      55) E      56) N      57) G      58) B

解析:

(无)
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